1943 saw the gradual collapse of the Nazi regime until its surrender in May, 1944. Despite losing the war in the East, and irrespective of the diversion of necessary resources from the war effort, Hitler continued to relentlessly prosecute the Final Solution of the Jews in the concentration camps and ghettos, murdering as many as 10,000 per day in the Auschwitz gas chambers alone . Many attempted to rescue Jews from Nazi extermination at great risk to their own safety, and over 13,000 have been recognized as “Righteous Gentiles” for their deeds. Rescuers include diplomats Raoul Wallenberg, Carl Lutz, and Hiram Bingham; Oscar Schindler; and Pastor Andre Trochme. The citizens of Denmark hid Jews and ferried them to safety in neutral Sweden, saving most of Denmark’s 8000 Jews. In the fall of 1944, the Nazis began the evacuation of Auschwitz, and as the Allies advanced in 1945, all camps were evacuated under Himmler’s orders, resulting in many thousands of deaths from the so-called “death marches”. At the end of the war more than 200,000 survivors were living in the Allied zones of occupation in DP (Displaced Persons) camps. They could not return home and thus remained until emigration could be arranged to either Palestine or to other countries willing to absorb the refugees.
This collection features passports, visas and other documents of diplomats and others who saved Jews, including Friedrich Born, Frank Foley, Feng Shan Ho, Vlademar Langlet, Carl Lutz, Monsignor Angelo Rota, Andrey Szeptycki, Angel Sanz-Briz, Chiune Sugihara, Raoul Wallenberg,Carl Ivan Danielsson and Jan Zwartendijk. Also noteworthy is an assemblage of ephemera—photos, covers, letters, etc.- from the Bergen-Belsen (D.P. Hohne) Displaced Persons Camp (1946-1948); and covers from organizations such as the AJDC , IRO and UNRRA, established to provide aid and assistance to Jewish refugees.
--Michael D. Bulmash, K1966
Browse the Bulmash Family Holocaust Collection.
Tan postcard addressed to Dr. Otto Kurz from Georg Wengraf in blue ink. Includes printed message with additions written in blue ink.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Postcard addressed to Dr. Otto Kurz in Switzerland, received 3/9/44. 2-line h/s 'REPLY MUST BE ON PCDS & IN GERMAN' Nazi OKW cesnor and three other censor markings. Formula printed card "thank you for your food parcel" to Dr. Otto Kurz-Switz, delivered by Nazi courier to Prague rather than Berlin, thus held only one month before being posted posted on 4.5.44; under franked, taxed on arrival, 4 different censor marks; 7 word message contrary to regulations, but posted anyway. Translation: "Dear ones: I acknowledge with thanks the receipt of your package March 1944. We are well and await information soon from you. George Wengraf."
Front: Tan postcard with black printed text and blanks with writing in green ink. Back: Black printed postcard lines. Return address written in upper lefthand corner in green ink. Address written on right in green ink. 11b stamp on left side. Pencil marking in upper righthand corner. Postcard written by (Gertruda) Trüde Shön (born January 21, 1900). Prisoner number 65152. Transported from Hradec Kralove, Czechoslovakia to Theresienstadt. Transported from Theresienstadt to Auschwitz October 9, 1944. She did not survive.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Postcard written by (Gertruda) Trüde Shön (born 21 January 1900). Prisoner number 65152. Transported from Hradec Kralove, Czechoslovakia to Theresienstadt on 17 Dec. 1942. Transported from Theresienstadt to Auschwitz extermination camp on 9 October 1944 where she was murdered.
Front: White postcard with black printed postcard lines. Includes writing in black ink, as well as red and green postage stamps and two black hand stamps.Back: An illustration of five chicks with a message 'Sretan Uskrs!' [Happy Easter] in blue.
Tan postcard addressed to P. Kämpf from Oskar Kuhn in pencil. Includes printed message with additions written in pencil.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Card acknowledging package from Mr. P. Kampf to an inmate of Theresienstadt Ghetto, Oskar Kuhn -- Vienna 9. Theresiandstadt. Turngasse 1. Translation: "I wish to confirm receipt of your package and thank you as of April 17. Happy birthday, Oskar Kuhn."
Magazine with title, "Kladderadatsch." Front cover includes an illustration of King George embracing a Soviet man with the caption, "God save the King!" Interior includes pro-Nazi illustrations and text.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: A May 1944 copy of the German satirical journal Kladderadatsch. The publication ceased later that year.
Dark paper; 'Geheime Staatspolizei' letterhead; several red pencil underlines including the name, 'Marian Sendek'.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash:From Secret State Police, Krakow. Originally headed 'Concentration camp Plaszow," it was corrected to "Transit camp Plaszow." The document identifies one Marian Sendek, born in Cracow on November 29, 1919, an unmarried Catholic farmer, was being arresed on suspicion of being a member of the Polish Worker's Party, the 'Polska Partia Robotnica." The PPR controlled the People's Army resistance, which was backed by the Soveit Union.
Oskar Schindler witnessed a German raid on the Jewish ghetto in Cracow in the summer of 1942 and watched Jews being packed onto trains and transported to certain death. He later said "I was now resolved to do everything in my power to defeat the system." After the Cracow ghetto was liquidated, many Jews were sent to Plaszow concentration camp, run by the infamous Amon Goeth. Schindler recorded the names and jobs of 1200 Jews at Plaszow that he needed to work at his enamelware factory in Cracow and submitted the list to the SS. While many Jews from Plaszow were sent to Auschwitz as the Russian forces approached in 1944, Schindler was able to save the "Schindlerjuden" from extermination.
Flier with two columns of text, one in German, one in Polish, respectively titled, "Bekanntmachung!" and "Obwieszczenie!"
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: A flier announcement of the murder of Police Lieutenant Hann on May 22, 1944, near Przeworsk. Ten people were shot immediately as a warning. The flier was signed der SS-und Polizeiführer im Distrikt Krakau (The SS and Chief of Police in the Krakow district). Dual text in Polish and German.
Tan postcard with black printed postcard lines. Addressed to Fritz Osfreicher from Zdenka Rorensky in black ink. Includes message written in black ink.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Postcard sent from Zdenka Korensky, Theresienstadt -- Badhausgasse A to Mr. Fritz Osfreicher, in Prague, with cachet in red regarding mailing instructions for Jews.Translation: "We thank you very much for your package and hope that you will not forget us in the future. We are well and hope that you are too. It would please us very much if we would get a report from you. Please convey our greetings to Hans and his wife and baby. Your Zdenka."
Tan postcard with red printed postcard lines addressed to Kurt Kraemer at the Hotel Krone from Lore Sara Wuga in Nuremberg. Includes typewritten message in German.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: This postcard was postmarked June 24, 1944, two weeks after the D-Day invasion began to liberate Europe from Nazi control. Remarkably, it was written by a Jew living openly in "Nuremberg, the City of the National Party Meeting" -- a city known for particularly virulent anti-Semitism. The return address includes the middle name "Sara," which was required in documents written by Jewish women in order to identify them as such. Fortunately for the widow who wriote this card, she had been married to an Aryan man. Jewish spouses of Aryans had legal protection from anti-Jewish sanctions, but such protection for this woman probably died with her husband. Translation:"My dear ones, now I have finally received your card, it was like a sunbeam into my loneliness. Many thanks therefore. Yes, to be brave. What does it help now, my life has no meaning any more. I have lost my best. I think always on Heinz and everybody, but it is extremely difficult. The days do not want to pass by, they are filled with sadness, tears and worries. My dear husband died in the midst of his work, it was always a great helper to him. He was so diligent up to his last hour. It is very difficult for me to take care of everything. Much of my heart blood do I give, and I now close everything by myself. I'm not myself any more. Heinz will equally be sad, and now he has so many worries. I'm glad, that Freds has good news from his family, but if one would have helped us, then I would not be by myself. At the time there were possibilities. I'll never be able to forgive that. I'm to say hello to you from Else Grünberger, she is in the last mother's home, I have asked about Cäcilie. She will surely write to me. I hope that Jo and Michel are in good health. I also don't hear from Jlse, but she is not very much for writing. The internment of the urn took place last weekend for us. The brother and wives write to me quite often. Brother-in-law Franz was also there. Hearty greetings and kisses to you. Your Lore.
Front: Tan postcard with printed black text in French and writing in purple pencil. Several black and purple hand stamps.Back: Black printed postcard lines and address. Includes several red and black hand stamps, and a blue stripe diagonal across the page.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Unfranked RELICO postcard with censor marks and chemical censor, printed card from Abraham Taub who writes from a work camp Jowischovitz in Upper Silesia to Comite RELICO (The Relief Committee for War-stricken Jews), founded by Abraham Silberschein, in Geneva Switzerland, dated June 24, 1944.
Front: Tan paper with a black illustration of Theresienstadt at the top. Includes black typewritten text, an illustrations of a horse-drawn carriage, and a dove entering through a gate.Back: Black typewritten text going halfway down the page, and illustrations of a tree-lined path, and a man looking through a telescope.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: A self-published bulletin from the Theresienstadt ghetto dated June 24, 1944. Written by the Jewish Council (Altestenrat der Juden) in Theresienstadt-Hitler’s so called “gift to the Jews”-the bulletin typically gave orders and reports to the Jewish inhabitants of the ghetto. The ‘beautification’ referred to as the “Stadtverschonerung” refers to the “beautification” program based on the cynical Nazi effort to sanitize the ghetto in advance of the infamous Swiss Red Cross visit on June 23, 1944, just one day before this bulletin’s publication. This planned visit, and the Nazi response to it, emerged out of Denmark’s pressuring the Nazi’s about the 466 Danish Jews sent to Theresienstadt. To ensure that they were being treated humanely, the Danish government sent two Danish representatives to accompany the Swiss representatives. The Nazis used this occasion to create propaganda and an embellishment campaign that was designed to present the ghetto in a favorable light. To impress the delegates, to create the appearance of a functioning and quasi-autonomous village life for the Jews, shops were opened, including a café and a bank; camp “money” was printed (scrip useless anywhere else) and distributed for Jews to purchase items at the shops. The ruse included cultural events that lasted for one week: soccer games were arranged, orchestral productions, parks were opened, a playground and special food given to the ghetto children, etc. Of course, the massively overcrowded conditions in the ghetto had to be relieved, necessitating the transport of17,517 Jews to Auschwitz. After the Red Cross visit, and the release of a glowing report, transports to Auschwitz resumed.
Letter: Letter written in blue ink on thin white paper.Envelope: Tan envelope addressed to Blarenka Seidlicove in blue ink. Back flap has return address to Otto Leidlic.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Correspondence between Otto Leidlic and Blarenka Seidlicove/Leidlic (2012.1.345a-e).
Envelope From the United National Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) to the American Joint Distribution Committee
White envelope addressed to Joseph C. Hyman, American Joint Distribution Committee in New York from M.W. Beckelman, UNRRA. Includes Beckelman's signature.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: The United National Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) was active from December 9, 1944-June 30, 1947. This envelope is an early use of the UNRRA designation. Stamped API 759 (Casablanca) June 28, 1944, self-censored.
Green envelope with printed return address to "Der Bezirkshauptmann in Jitschin." Includes typewritten address to Blazena Seidlitz.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Letter from the Commissioner for Management of Properties in "Jitschin" in Chechoslovakia to Blazena Seidlitz
Tan postcard with black printed postcard lines and message layout on back side. Addressed in ink to H. Eisner from Eda Aschermann.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: From the "Judenrat" in Litzmannstadt (Lodz) Ghetto, an acknowledgement of receipt of 20 Reichsmarks
Typewritten letter on "Der Höhere SS-Und Polizeiführer" stationery. Includes signature in black.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Stroop was the SS Police Leader of Warsaw who was responsible for the savage crushing of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising in 1943 about which he wrote a book- intended as a souvenir for Himmler- originally entitled “The Warsaw Ghetto is no more.” It took Stroop and his army a month of overwhelming firepower to subdue the Ghetto fighters who had little in the way of food or ordnance. Indeed, Stroop grudgingly acknowledged surprise at the fighting spirit of the Ghetto inhabitants. Brought to trial as a war criminal, he was found guilty and executed-appropriately- in Warsaw. Document on his"Der Hohere SS und Polizeifuhrer" letterhead. Sent to SS-Gruppenfuhrer and Waffen SS- Generalleutnant Maximilan von Herff in Berlin, thanking him for sending an edition of the "New German Cultural Atlas', which I would like to study..."Maximilian von Herff (1893-1945) commanded a corps in North Africa and later assisted Stroop in overseeing the liquidation of the Warsaw Ghetto.
Typewritten message on "Der Reichskommissar für die Besetzten Niederländischen Gebiete" stationery. Includes signature in blue.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: A letter written by Arthur Seyss-Inquart to Albert Speer. Seyss-Inquart (1892-1946) was Reich Governor of Austria, Deputy Governor to Hans Frank in the General Government of occupied Poland, and Reich Commissioner for the German-occupied Netherlands. In the latter capacity, Seyss-Inquart shared responsibility for the deportation of Dutch Jews and the shooting of hostages. At Nuremberg he was found guilty of crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity, and subsequently sentenced to death.
Front: Tan paper with fold. "Auszug aus der Lagerordnug:" printed at top left. Date written in top right. Top righthand corner has the date. Back: Circled 22 to left of address. Two identical purple stamps in the righthand corner of Hitler's profile facing right. On the other half is the prisoner's name, number(15301), and block (12)
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Natzweiler-Struthof was the only German concentration camp in France. Prisoners had been used as slave laborers for the German armaments industry. A gas chamber had been constructed and used on 80 Jewish prisoners who were sent to the Institute of Anatomy at Strasbourg University to be used for Dr. August Hirt’s skeleton collection. Lettersheet from Michel Choll to his wife Kathryn in Luxembourg. My dear wife, I received your lovely letter on the 26th of July. It took 18 days and the package with cake came on the 2nd of July--all arrived safely. Many thanks. With each piece I take out of the package I think of your lovely hands doing it (putting the items in). Kathryn, don't send so much because you could use it yourself. I am fine. I am happy (if you are ok--to go thru these terrible times--but if the tomatoes stay small or big it doesn't matter. I heard from --- Luxembourg--something happened to a lot of families--that is why we have to work out (suffer with) the situation. Hopefully we will see each other healthy. My best wishes for ---. I haven't heard anything from ---. I am waiting for your next letter to arrive. Many heartfelt kisses. My greetings to the others.
Front: Tan postcard with printed black text and blanks, with black writing in cursive. Some writing in pencil in lower righthand corner. Back: Black printed postcard lines. Return address written in black ink on upper lefthand corner. Address written in black ink on right side. Black stamp across length of the top. 11b stamp in blue on left side. Purple pasted stamp of Hitler in profile facing left on right top corner. Postcard written by Elizabeth Rosa Ornstein (Born May 2, 1896), Prisoner number 46606. Transported from Vienna, Austria to Thereseinstadt on. Transported from Theresienstadt to Auschwitz on October 6, 1944. She did not survive.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Package receipt acknowledgement sent by Elizabeth Rosa Ornstein (Born May 2, 1896), on July 7, 1944. Rosa was prisoner number 46606 at Theresienstadt, having been transported from Vienna, Austria to Theresienstadt. She was deported from Theresienstadt to Auschwitz- three months after receiving this package -on October 6, 1944 ,where she was murdered.
Tan Sachsenhausen stationery with printed regulations and lines. Includes a message written in blue ink. Includes address to Hilenke Zoubkore from Zander Zorbek.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: This letter from a 48-year-old Czechoslovakian prisoner at Sachsenhausen to his wife reflects his concern about his relationship with her -- damage that his imprisonment at the hands of the Nazis not only created, but now also limits his ability to repair. This letter iswaswritten in good German but has mistakes characteristic of Czechoslovakian speakers of German. This letter was written five days before army conspirators attempted to assassinate Hitler. Translation:Sachsenhausen, July 15, 1944.The day of release cannot be given yet. Visits to the camp are forbidden. Inquiries are useless. Extract of the camp regulations: Each detainee may write or recieve two letters or postcards per month. Incoming letters may not have more than 4 pages of 15 lines each and they must be written in a clear and readable form. Remittances of money are only allowed by postal order whose coupon may only contain the first and last name, birth date, and number of the detainee, but no communications of any sort. Money and photos or picture enclosures in letters are forbidden. Postal sendings that do not comply with these regulations will be denied [admittance]. Poorly organized or hard to read letters will be destroyed. Everything can be bought in the camp. National Socialist newspapers are permitted but must be ordered within the concentration camp by the detainee himself. Food packages may be recieved at any time and in any amount. The Camp Commander.Dear Helen! I thank you for your letter of the 28th of June and for the packages of June 23, June 30, and July 4. Best thanks also to the [name] but they shouldn't send me any more. If I should need anything I will write. Please let me know how you meant it in your letter before the last with the greatest humiliation of a woman through a man. I do not understand that well. In reading your letter I walked with you through our entire place [could refer to a farm]. I thought of each little place which reminded me of any happy, content, and beautiful experience. I do not think about the discontented ones. Do not forget to tell me what became of the firm [illegible] and co. Dearest K-I thank you for the "[trade name of time]" you sent. It lasted me about 14 days. [Name] and [name] I also thank for the letter of May 27. I would like it to end soon. I send my greeting to Uncle --, and I'm looking forward to his news. I thank dear Maryanke, for her greetings, and I return them. I wish her good helath. Kisses, your Janke.
Tan postcard addressed to Dr. Otto Kurz from Rosa Englander in green ink. Includes message written in green ink.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Translation: "Dear Hana and Otto: We wrote to you recently and acknowledged receipt of package of figs. We also received the package sent via Red Cross. My wife was especially pleased to receive the latter. She is recuperating from a recent illness and in need of lots of rest. I also informed you that my mother passed away Dec 12, 1943 and asked you to inform the rest of the family. Otherwise we are quite well. We constantly wait for mail from you. Greetings."
Tan paper with typewritten message in fading ink. Blue Buchenwald hand stamp in upper left corner. Black Kartei stamp in upper right. Black ink singnature in bottom middle.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Document signed by a concentration camp doctor ("Der Lager Arzt") at Buchenwald stating that the inmate, Otto Schnurpel, prisoner Nr. 24097, died "accidentaly" on July 25, 1944. This date is five days after the July 20th attempt on Hitler's life.
Green postcard with black printed postcard lines. Addressed to Josefa France from Irma Semesky in black ink. Includes message written in black ink.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: To Frau Josefa France, Prague VII, Messetasse 41 (11l) from Semesky, Irma, Theresienstad, Hauptstrausse (Maiuah) 22/71. Red stamp -- really only one postcard in German language over the official for Jewish Prague 5 -- Philipp de Monte Gesse 18.Translation: "Most precious mother,Greetings and kisses. I thank you for everything you do for me. Package arrived in good condition and made me very happy. I think of you all the time and also our good friends and are also happy to recieve letters from them. From Father Franz I receive nothing, only from you. I received photos and a letter from Paul. It made me very happy. I would love to have a picture of your dear mother to see what you look like. I am working as before and am quite satisfied with my work. I have the opportunity to read and listen to music and you know what pleasure this gives me. I hope you are really in good health and that you think of me as I do of you. I hope you heard from Paul. Write to me often dear mother as I wait impatiently for any news of you. Many greetings for Paul, Aunt Anna and with kisses to you. Your Irna."
Front:Typed letter wtih large red Star of David handstamp at bottom center; '1.Aug.1944' handstamp at bottom left. Back: Continuation of typed text with Reich seal hand stamp.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash:Typed one page two sided file document concerning one Hedwig 'Sara' Broh with large red 'Jude' and Star of David hand stamp, and Third Reich eagle hand stamp on reverse. Jews who were later killed by the regime were forced to pay for life insurance policies in which the regime was the beneficiary.
Tan paper with printed black German on top. Beneath are printed black dotted lines with handwriting in pencil. Back: Tan paper originally folded in half. Top portion has printed black text and dotted lines filled in with the last name 'Vesela', then a blank portion below excepting some pencil writing beneath the printed lines, and a long diagonal pencil mark. The other half has the address written on printed postal lines, and a red stamp of Hitler in profile facing right. On the pasted stamp is a black circular handstamp, and to the left is a purple rectangular hand stamp with a signature in it.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: This Ravensbruck Concentration Camp formular cover/letter from inmate Helena Vesela with printed postal instructions from the Camp Kommandant was sent in 1944. The letter was censored by the German Camp censor and stamped on the cover front page. Ravensbruck was the largest concentration camp for women in the Reich, and inmates came from over 30 countries.