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Grey envelope with typewritten address to Mr. Walter Rosenthal. Includes a stamped return address on back flap from Dr. Julius Israel Fliess, as well as censor tape.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: A law enacted August 17, 1938 required Jews with non-Jewish forenames to assume the name "Sara" if a woman and "Israel" if a man. These names were to be used on all correspondence -- private or official -- including return addresses on mail. In September 1938, all Jewish attorneys were banned from practicing law. Only a few Jewish attorneys were allowed to continue practicing law under the professional title of "Konsulent" or Legal Consultant, but only with Jewish clients.This envelope was addressed from Berlin to Brookline, Massachusetts. The return address reads: "Dr. Julius Israel Fliess 'Konsulent' Specializing in a accurate Consultations and Representing Jews." Also, since Elise "Sara" Reiss carried the letter to the post office (yet another decree directed at Jews required that foreign mail be hand-delivered to the post office where it would be censored), it was necessary that she list her name and address.
4 1/2 x 6 1/4"
stamp, Berlin, Brookline, Massachusetts, Nazi seal, Julius Fliess, Julius Isarel Fliess, Elise Sara Reiss, Walter Rosenthal
"Rare Cover: Nuremberg Laws Applied to Lawyers" (1941). Bulmash Family Holocaust Collection. 2012.1.289a.