Date of Award

Spring 4-2-2024

Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts



First Advisor

Alexandra Bradner


Transhumanists, like Nick Bostrom and Julian Huxley, support the use and development of novel modification technologies in order to support a teleological vision of progressive human enhancement. By contrast bioconservatives, like Tom Koch and Francis Fukuyama, staunchly oppose the use and development of specific or all modification technologies for ethical and aesthetic reasons. Out of the conflict between these two opposed positions a third position, anarchist transhumanism, emerges. Anarchist transhumanism maintains transhumanism’s openness to modification technology, while replacing its evolutionary teleology with a deep commitment to morphological freedom. The morphological freedom centered approach to the modification debate is promising, but it runs into problems when attempts are made to situate it within a theoretical ethical system. This project works to bridge the gap between anarchist transhumanism and preference utilitarianism, by providing an answer to this question: why do desires about one’s own body carry more normative weight than desires about the bodies of others? This project attempts to answer this question by developing and using the Immanuel/Jade model. This model works to identify relevant facts about the desires involved in contentious modification cases so that a clear ethical judgment can be reached. This project will also analyze several cases of interpersonal conflict about gender-affirming care within a transgender friend group using the Immanuel/Jade model, in order to demonstrate its efficacy and proper use.

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