Civil war in Spain raged for three years, from 1936 to 1939. A democratically elected “Second Republic” attempted reforms which threatened the monarchists and the aristocracy, the Catholic Church, the military, and de Rivera’s fascist party, the Falangists. These groups ultimately united against the Republican reformists who themselves were also hounded by disgruntled workers and left- leaning radicals who did not think the reformists of the Second Republic went far enough. The constituencies composing the Popular Front -liberals, socialists, and communists- demanded more reforms from the Second Republic and eventually won an electoral victory in 1936.
The Nationalists on the right soon took up arms against the Republicans, consolidating military power under Franco. Hitler and Mussolini lost little time supporting the Nationalist cause. Hitler sent his Condor legion along with the naval support, thus providing him an opportunity to test his military ordnance (e.j., the aerial bombing of civilian targets such as Guernica) in advance of overrunning the countries of Europe; while the International Brigades, composed of volunteers- many of whom were communists and American liberals- supported the Republicans cause. While some Soviet aid was forthcoming, the Republicans were not match for the Nationalists and their allies and they eventually fragmented into mutually antagonistic factions. With the fall of Barcelona in Catalonia, the Franco regime emerged victorious.
--Michael D. Bulmash, K1966
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Envelope Sent During Spanish Civil War from Malaga, Spain, to Germany
Faded envelope with typewritten addressee. Two stamps, both of Isabella I of Castille. One purple for 40 cts, one red for 30 cts. The red has a circular black hand stamp over it. The return address is 'Compania Mata' in Malaga. Three puple stamps, 'Viva ECRANA', 'Viva Franco!' and 'Censura Militar Malaga' also a '102' stamped in blue. Back: One purple stamp on the bottom, 'Correspondencia Comercial'.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Spanish Civil War Malaga Franco's Censor of Letter Addressed to Germany
Censored Spanish Civil War Cover from Madrid to Biarritz, France
Envelope with Purple ink stamp “Censurada” on the top next to a blue Spanish postal stamp.
Envelope Sent from Agfa-Foto in Sevilla, Spain, During Spanish Civil War to I.G. Farben in Berlin, Germany
Faded white envelope with typewritten address. Printed return address, logo for 'AGFA-FOTO' company in Sevilla. Four stamps: from left to right; red, green, green, blue. There is a puple censure stamp, 'SEVILLA Censura Militar' as well as a written red line under the address.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Spanish Civil War Sevilla Franco's Censor of letter addressed to I.G. Farben Germany.
Hand Painted and Colored International Brigades Censored Postcard from Spain to Czechoslovakia
Postcard includes painted image of a man and woman together with “VISADO POR LA CENSURA MILITAR” stamped in red on back of card.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Postcard to Morovia, cancelled Valencia 30c meter in red with boxed S.C.C./25 MAR 1937/111 hand stamp of International Brigade in black with another strike alongside overlaid by boxed Visado/Por la/Censura Militar hand stamp in red.
International Brigades, Cover to Paris with Valencia Meter and Censor
Envelope with pink and orange ink stamps addressed to “Monsieur Albert Thomas”.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: International Brigades censor markings, SCC111 and Paris arrival strike on back.
Spanish Civil War Cover, AGFA in Spain Censor Markings to I.G.Farben AGFA Division in Berlin
Off-white envelope with return address 'Diez Hermanos - Jerez de la Frontera' printed in cursive across the top. Three stamps below that: two green, one red. Each has a circular black stamp on top of it. There is also a purple, circular stamp 'Censura Militar Jerez Frontera'.The address is typewritten.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Spanish Civil War. 1937 to Margate, UK with censor markings.
Censored Republican Air Mail Sent from Barcelona during Spanish Civil War
Front: Three stamps in top right corner. Left to right: black with man in profile facing left; red with man in profile facing left; blue with image of building. Address handwritten in black ink. A blue stamp added to left corner for air travel. A faded purple censor stamp on the left side, along with a piece of beige tape. '29' stamped in purple on the right side. Back: tape and purple stamp on right side, with some pencil markings on the fold of the envelope.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Spain, Civil War, Republican air mail cover from Barcelona to Brussels with censor.
Spanish Civil War Propaganda Postcard with Images of Hitler, Franco and Mussolini
Postcard includes images of Adolf Hitler, Francisco Franco, Benito Mussolini along left side, postmarked “SEVILLA” in upper right corner.”
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash:Propaganda postcard showing photographs and flags of partners in the Nationalist coalition: Nationalist Spain under Franco; Fascist Italy under Mussolini; and Nazi Germany under Hitler.
International Bridges Cover Sent by Jewish Brigadist, Adolf Lebovic
Envelope with four red postage stamps, one green postage stamp and one gray postage stamp, all marked “REPUBLICA ESPAÑOLA. Backed stamped with “BRATISLAVA 17.xii.37—8” in black ink.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash:International Brigades cover to Czechoslovakia sent by Jewish Brigades soldier Adolf Lebovič, “S.R.I. 1J, Albacete,” with mark SCC111 of December 11, 1937 (and censor Heller 5a on the back), among Paris transit mark dated on December 17, 1938. On the front Prague transit mark of December 16, 1938.
Censored Spanish Civil War Postcard, From Las Palmas with German Message
Beige postcarde with red stamp of woman in old-fashioned bonnet in righthand corner. Black circular stamp over the stamp. Handwritten address to Berlin Germany. Two puple stamps, one on the left, 'Censura Militar Las Palmas', one at bottom, 'Alemania'. on the bottom. Back: Message handwritten in German with black ink.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Spanish Civil War.1938 plain card from Las Palmas has message in German.
Spanish Civil War Correspondence to Mollet del Valles with Mark BRIGADA MIXTA 146
a: Blue envelope with red stamp in top right corner marked “REPUBLICA ESPANOLA.” B: Letter with date “20 d’Febrer 1938” written in upper right corner, heart with arrow drawn through it in upper left corner.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Cover and Letter from the front to Mollet del Vallès with black mark “Brigada Mixta 146 / Control de Correspondencia.” The 146 Mixed Brigade was formed in May 1937 and was involved in the Battle of Teruel from December 1937 to February 1938. Teruel was one of the bloodiest battles of the Spanish Civil War. It was eventually taken by the Nationalists. This letter was probably written after the battle.
International Brigades Censored Envelope from Valencia to Czechoslovakia
Front: Two red stamps with image of man in profile on right side; worth 25 cts. A circular black stamp covers them. The return address is printed with a purple oval censorship stamp over it. Address is typewritten. Back: Tan tape on the top with a oval purple censorship stamp.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Communists, socialists, and anarchists from many nations converged to support the Republican forces in the fight against the Fascist Franco Nationalist army. This International Brigades Cover has the "Communicaciones" censor of the Brigades.
Postcard Commemorating Germany's Condor Legion
Front: Several black and white photographs of Adolf Hitler and Nazi soldiers in formation between illustrations of pillars.Back: White postcard with writing in pencil and blue ink, two brown postage stamps, and two black hand stamps.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: A special card issued to commemorate Germany's Condor Legion and the service they performed for Franco's Nationalist forces in the Spanish Civil War, with Legion Condor commemorative cancel. The Condor Legion was considered a test run for Hitler's aircraft prior to his utilizing it to subjugate Europe in World War II. They developed a terror bombing strategy to be utilized throughout the war. They are responsible for the terror bombing of civilians of the Basque village of Guernica on April 26, 1937, an event immortalized by Picasso's painting of June, 1937.
Spanish Civil War Envelope : International Brigades to Italy
Front: Two identical purple stamps with image of Isabella I of Castille in right corner, each 40 cts. Has a circular purple stamp over it. Two other purple stamps, one faded oval stamp and one square censorship stamp. Address handwritten in black ink. Back: Black circular stamp on right side. Flap cut off. Sent to the same correspondent as 2014.1.292
Envelope Sent by International Brigade in Lerida to Italy
Front: Four stamps, two in right corner, two on bottom left corner facing horizontally. All are purple with image of Isabella I of Catille, worth 40 cts. One circular black stamp over each grouping of two. Address handwritten in black ink. A "Censura Militar" stamp in blue on the left side. Back: Black circular stamp on rightside. Sent to the same correspondent as 2014.1.291
Envelope from Argeles sur Mer Camp with Franchise Stamp
Front: Green; Address handwritten in blue ink. One stamp with a woman in Greco-Roman attire holding a branch, worth 90c. Two black circular stamps, one over the stamp, one below it. Back: Return address written upside down on back.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Argeles sur Mer camp was established in February 1939 in Southern France to intern approximately 80-100,000 refugees, the remains of the Spanish Republican Army that had been forced to leave Spain after being defeated by Franco's fascists in the Spanish Civil War. Conditions in the camp were miserable, disease and lice were common, as the refugees were kept behind barbed wire, guarded by French sentries.
Envelope to Spanish Soldier in Division Azul
Front: Green stamp in top right corner with 'Espana' and image of Juan de la Cierva, with a black, circular stamp over it. Three more stamps on the left side, each with the profile of a man with a Spanish seal behind him. Purple and black circular stamps over them. Address hand written in cursive blue ink. Several numbers stamped on the letter in blue, puple, and red. Tape on the left side of the envelope. Back: Return address written at top. A blue 'Barcelona' stamp over where the envelope folds down. Nazi tape with its eagle and swastika along right side.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Cover from Spain to Spanish soldier of Franco's Pro-Nazi Blue Division (Division Azul) in Germany cancelled in 1942. Censored by Spanish and German censors.
Anti-Nationalist Postcard of Spanish Civil War: Republican Junta de Burgos Ship
Postcard featuring a political cartoon with figures representing the Nazi party, the Catholic Church, Moroccans on board a ship.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash:The Spanish Civil War lasted from July 1936 to April 1939. The image on this postcard caricatures the groups held responsible for the Nationalist insurrection against the elected Republican government, placing the Generalissimo Francisco Franco and his Falangist party in power. These partners include the Church, the pro-fascist aristocracy, the military and Moroccans of the Army of Africa. All appear aboard a boat named “Junta de Burgos”, registered in Lisbon, referencing the Nationalist headquarters and the origins of the uprising in fascist Portugal. A Banner proclaims “Arriba Espana”. Spain itself hangs from a scaffold.
Spanish Civil War Cover to France with Censor and Cachet
Envelope addressed to “Excmo. Sr. Marques di Targiani” printed in purple, includes red postage stamp and blue postage stamp of Isabel La Católica in upper right corner, “SALTOS DEL DUERA, S.A.” in bottom left corner.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash:Nationalist Cover with por-Franco caches and censor markings.