Object ID


Object Name






Download Full Text (576 KB)


Envelope marked “HEFTENFABRIK RENOMA Treuhander” in black print in top left corner, red postage stamp in upper right corner, “Nürnberg” underlined in black print in bottom right corner.

Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash:

“RENOMA” manufactured notebooks (heftenfabrik). Johann Wisniewski is the trustee of the company at this time. Letter is addressed to A.W. Faber writing instruments manufacturer in Nuremberg. Faber continues to this day as Faber-Castell, owned by the same family.

After the invasion of a Poland in 1939, treuhander (trustees) were appointed to take over the management of formerly Jewish-owned firms that had been confiscated by the Germans. Bendzin was a textile center in Upper Silesia, and Jews constituted 80 percent of the population of the town. This “aryanization” of formerly Jewish-owned businesses - consistent with the German Nuremberg laws - did not preclude Jews continuing to work in these firms for the time being, as their expert advice was necessary for these firms to function properly. Since the treuhander usually handled larger concerns, and Poles took over management of smaller ones, it is assumed that this company was a sizable factory.


4 3/4 x 6"


Treuhander, Bendzin, Raber-Castell, Aryanization



Commemorative Treuhander Cover from German Invasion of Oberschlesien, Again in Polish Hands, with Provisional Liberation Cancel



Rights Statement

In Copyright - Educational Use Permitted.

To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.