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Envelope with red ink stamp "2239" in bottom left corner, three black circular ink stamps, one blue circular ink stamp, 4 postal stamps on the top right corner, two black, and two Franco stamps: one green, on purple. These postal stamps are partially covered by brown censor strip along the right border. Handwritten address in light blue on the back reads, "Miranda de Ebro (Burgos), C. de Conc. [Campo de Concentración], España-Espanien”.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash:At the time this letter was posted, there were over 5000 detainees in Miranda de Ebro, on of almost 200 concentration camps used throughout Spain to house those hostile to Franco regime, including 600-700 remnants of the International Brigade, as well as men attempting to escape France via Spain to Portugal or Gibraltar.
3 1/2 x 5 3/4"
Miranda de Ebro, International Brigade
1939-1941: Concentration:Ghettos, Einsatzgruppen (Mobile Killing Squads); WWII in Europe
"Cover from Miranda de Ebro Concentration Camp to Cracow, Poland, General Gouvernment, Sent by a Polish Prisoner" (1942). Bulmash Family Holocaust Collection. 2019.2.106.