Authors

Object ID

2012.1.78

Object Name

Broadside

Date

2-1-1941

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Description

A bright red sheet titled "Bekendmaking" with Dutch text.

Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: A rare broadside from Amsterdam in Dutch, issued by SS Brigade Leader, Hans Rauter, ordering the first roundup of Dutch Jews following the German invasion of the Netherlands. The roundup was called in response to what was known as the "Koco Affair." Ernst Cahn, a German-Jewish refugee living in Amsterdam, was a partner in an ice cream parlor named Koko. Following the invasion, some well-meaning friends of Cahn divised a mechanism to ward off unwanted visitors: a 20 inch ammonia flask that would spray an intruder. On the night of January 19, a German police patrol entered the store and were sprayed with the ammonia. In response, Rauter ordered the roundup of four hundred Jewish men aged twenty to thirty-five years. The broadside, printed on red paper in Dutch, gives the SS version of events and roughly translates, in part: "While even the brutal murder of a Dutch National-Socialist in the ghetto is all memory, a patrol of German security police most criminally attacked. On the night of Wednesday the 19th of February... in the Jewish emigrant quarter to Amsterdam of Woustraat, a patrol of German security police entered [a shop] where a secret meeting was taking place, and sprayed with ammonia when they entered. Simultaneously, the Jewish criminals shot at the German policemen. The immediate intervention of the police officers succeeded, capturing some of the criminals, while the majority more escaped in the dark..." In response, Rauter ordered that "four hundred male Jews in the age of 20-35 years are captured and transferred to a German concentration camp." Furthermore, Rauter warned, "any demonstration of any kind, and such phenomena as against the German occupation authorities conceived and directed by the German security authorities will immediately be suppressed and beaten down." Most of these men were deported to Buchenwald and Matthausen. In retaliation, on February 25, 1941, the Dutch Communist Party organized a strike of municipal workers in Amsterdam that rapidly grew into a gerneral strike across the country. The strike was crushed in days but it remains as the only such anti-pogrom strike ever staged in Nazi-occupied Europe. True to Rauter's word, the strike was brutally suppresed. Ernst Cahn, the owner of the shop, was shot by a firing squad on March 3 after refusing to identify the individuals who had installed the ammonia canister in his shop.

Dimensions

10 x 7"

Keywords

Amsterdam, SS, brigade leader, Netherlands, Koco Affair, Woustraat, Deportation, Buchenwald, Matthausen, Dutch communist party, strike, Hans Rauter, Ernst Cahn

Roundup of Dutch Jews Broadside

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