The policy of requiring Jews to wear various means of identification had been employed by Muslims and Christians at different times throughout the centuries as a means of separating Jews from the rest of society. The Nazi policy of requiring Jews to wear the Judenstern, the Star pf David served to dehumanize and isolate Jews, but as well was instrumental in identifying them for eventual ghettoization and deportation to slave labor camps, concentration camps, or extermination centers. Wearing the yellow Star of David became compulsory after the invasion of Poland in September 1939, throughout countries conquered and occupied by Germany and its allies. The design of the badge varied from region to region.
--Michael D. Bulmash, K1966
Browse the Bulmash Family Holocaust Collection.
Julius Streicher "Der Sturmer" cover with his imprint of superimposed star of David on caricatured "Jewish" face sent from Nuremberg to Georg Sauer in Aschaffenburg.
Front: A Jewish couple holding hands with Star of David patches on their clothing. Back: A pasted news clipping explaining the photograph.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: "A Jewish couple walks along a street in Berlin wearing the six-pointed star with the inscription 'Jude' (Jew) sewn on the left side of their clothes. The star, Berlin sources said, "has been perscribed by law since Sept. 19, 1941" -AP photo
An armband worn by a member of the Jewish Ghetto Police.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Armband from a Jewish Ghetto, a "Judischer Ordnungsdienst" [Jewish Ghetto Police] once worn by a member of one of the Auxiliary police units organized in the Jewish ghettos of Europe by local Judenrat councils under orders of the occupying Nazis. Members of the Judischer Ordnungsdienst were the Jews themselves, had no officual uniform other than the armband and a badge, and were not allowed to carry firearms. They were used by the Germans primarily for securing the deportation of other Jews to concentration camps.
A white armband with blue Star of David stitched into it.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: A crudely stitched Star of David embroidered on cloth. On December 1, 1939, two months after the surrender of Poland to the Nazis, the German authorities ordered all Jews to wear an armband on their right sleeve bearing a blue Star of David.
A Dutch, yellow Star of David with the word "Jood" [Jew] in the center.
Front: Black and white photograph showing a group of Jewish men holding brooms. Two men at the front wear large Star of David patches, and one man to the left looks directly into the camera.Back: Includes pencil markings and blue hand stamps.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Photograph of the Holocaust from Ukranian Archives.
Yellow Star of David button with two holes in center, Star of David carved into front of button.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Carved button issued to Bulgarian Jews during German occupation of Bulgaria as an aspect of Nazification of that country and visual identification of Jews. Unlike the patches worn in other occupied countries, this was meant to be sewn into the lapel.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Original announcement by Amsterdam judenrat on April 29, 1942, that the star of David (mogen david) [2014.1.209] had to be worn by every Jewish person in the Netherlands during the Nazi occupation. Signed by A. Asscher and Dr. D. Cohen of the Dutch Joodsche Raad in Amsterdam.
Front: Black and white photo of ten Jewish men, each wearing a yellow Star of David on their chest.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Acme wire photo with attached press release verso: 'Worn and exhausted from their experiences at the hands of the Nazis is this group of Jews liberated from German camps by Red Army troops. Because of a Hitlerite decree they were forced to wear the six-pointed Star of David on their coats." Credit (ACME Radio Photo) 11/29/44.
Front: An image of a Jewish wedding ceremony in occupied Belgium. Back: Typed information about the image, "The Longest Hatred".
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Photo of "A family portrait in German-occupied Belgium. A Nazi decree required Jews...to wear a yellow star of David"...Part of a production on PBS in 1993,,," that "explores the persistent prejudice that casts Jews as outsiders and threats to society."
German, light yellow cloth with black outline and "Jude" stiched in black in the middle.
French, dark yellow cloth with black outline. "Juif" written in black in center.
Gold star with black outline. "Jude" stitched in black in center.
Black star with brown outline; Hebrew words stitched in brown in center. The text embroidered on it is a date - Tu Av/ 5701.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: This may be a reference to the minor Jewish holiday of Tu b'Av which in modern times is a celebration of love (like Valentine's day).
Dark yellow with black outline; "J" in center.
A black dress with an attached yellow Star of David patch with the word 'Jude' written on it.
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash:
Dress with German Star of David and “Jude” owned by Gertrude Katzenstein (Gerdy Kaston)
[Items relating to Gertrude Katzenstein: 2012.1.38ab, 2012.1.39, 2012.1.40, 2012.1.94, 2012.1.95ab, 2012.1.566]