Ethnicity and Psychopathology: A Meta-Analytic Review of 31 Years of Comparative MMPI/MMPI-2 Research
Meta-analyses were performed on 25 comparative Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and MMPI-2 studies of 1,428 male African Americans versus 2,837 male European Americans, 12 studies of 1,053 female African Americans versus 1,470 female European Americans, and 13 studies of 500 male Latino Americans and 1,345 male European Americans. Aggregate effect sizes suggest higher scores for ethnic minority groups than for European Americans on some MMPI/MMPI-2 scales and lower scores on others. However, none of the aggregate effect sizes suggest substantive differences from either a statistical or clinical perspective. The MMPI and MMPI-2 apparently do not unfairly portray African Americans and Latinos as pathological. Effect sizes across studies generally did not vary as a function of sociodemographic variables, research setting, or use of the MMPI versus MMPI-2. It is recommended that additional between- and within-ethnic groups psychopathology research continue.
Lopez, Irene; Nagayama Hall, Gordon C.; and Bansal, Anita, "Ethnicity and Psychopathology: A Meta-Analytic Review of 31 Years of Comparative MMPI/MMPI-2 Research" (1999). Psychological Assessment 11(2): 186-197. Faculty Publications. Paper 57.