Self-awareness and Physical Aggression
A theory of self-awareness was applied to aggression. In Experiment I, men were given an opportunity to aggress against women in the presence of a mirror, an audience, or neither. The mirror significantly inhibited aggression, but the audience did not. In Experiment II, an audience inhibited aggression, but only when there was frequent eye contact between the aggressor and the audience. These results were consistent with the predictions derived from the theory.
Fenigstein, Allan; Scheier, Michael F.; and Buss, Arnold H., "Self-awareness and Physical Aggression" (1974). Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 10(3): 264-273. Faculty Publications. Paper 33.
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology