The Hydraulic Analogy for Electric Current
About 1900 the British scientist Sir Oliver Lodge (1851–1940) described a hydraulic analogue for electrical circuits that was widely used in the first half of the century and is still with us. Although some physics teachers object to the use of analogy in their presentations, the hydraulic analogue has become firmly fixed in our consciousness, and it is interesting to see how some older textbooks used it. The mechanical model of the emf is a bit strained, but the other models are easy to accept as analogues.
“The Hydraulic Analogy for Electric Current”, The Physics Teacher, 41, 464-466 (2003)
The Physics Teacher