Modal Quantum Theory
We present a discrete model theory similar in structure to ordinary quantum mechanics, but based on a finite field instead of complex amplitudes. The interpretation of this theory involves only the “modal” concepts of possibility and necessity rather than quantitative probability measures. Despite its simplicity, our model theory includes entangled states and has versions of both Bell’s theorem and the no cloning theorem.
Schumacher, Benjamin and Westmoreland, Michael, "Modal Quantum Theory" (2012). Foundations of Physics 42(7): 918-925. Faculty Publications. Paper 281.
Foundations of Physics