Information transmission through a noisy quantum channel
Noisy quantum channels may be used in many information-carrying applications. We show that different applications may result in different channel capacities. Upper bounds on several of these capacities are proved. These bounds are based on the coherent information, which plays a role in quantum information theory analogous to that played by the mutual information in classical information theory. Many new properties of the coherent information and entanglement fidelity are proved. Two nonclassical features of the coherent information are demonstrated: the failure of subadditivity, and the failure of the pipelining inequality. Both properties arise as a consequence of quantum entanglement, and give quantum information new features not found in classical information theory. The problem of a noisy quantum channel with a classical observer measuring the environment is introduced, and bounds on the corresponding channel capacity proved. These bounds are always greater than for the unobserved channel. We conclude with a summary of open problems.
Physical Review A