Download Full Text (555 KB)
A black and white photograph of men running naked in the snow, with clothed Germans at the center.Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Jewish men forced to run naked from the bathhouse into the snow. Prior to the German occupation of Kielce in September 1939, there were 24,000 Jewish inhabitants. Immediately after the occupation, Jews were subject to fines, confiscation of property, forced labor, deportation to concentration camps, and murder. A Jewish ghetto was established in Kielce in 1941, and Jews were forced to move into it. Many of them were conscripted into forced labor at a nearby German ammunition plant. In August 1942, the liquidation of the Jewish ghetto began, and in 5 days 22,000 Jews were murdered. Those who survived the massacre were sent to another forced labor camp before going to Treblinka.
2 1/2 x 3"
German, Jew, Abuse, Kielce, Ghetto
"Abuse in Kielce Ghetto" (1941). Bulmash Family Holocaust Collection. 2014.1.145.