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32 pages; red ‘J’ stamp at top left of page 1; photo stapled on top left of page 2; interior pages have become detached from cover; pages 17-back cover have been hole punched twice;
Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash:
Fritz Schlesinger’s passport is stamped with the letter J. The handwritten “Israel” displayed on his passport to further distinguish him as a Jew ws required on letters and documents in 1938 by Nazi executive order. Fritz had been a “landwirtschafat praktikant”, and “agriculture intern” completing his training in farming practices and technology. Such training was commonly associated with Halutz movement and inspired by Zionist ideology with the gola to create Jewish settlements in Palestine. Mr. Schlesinger however, went through his training in a distinctly non-Zionist program formed by the Union of Jews in Germany (under supervision of the SS) on land at Gross-Breesen, near Trebnitz. To be sure, agricultural training was no less important here, but its inspiration was to help graduates secure jobs in any country as part of training for emigrating from Germany. While Mr. Schlesinger’s program was not specifically Zionist-inspired, it was no less urgent to help adolescents find gainful employment in countries like the UK, the Netherlands, South America and the United States. This became especially true after the Kristallnacht pogrom in November 1938. Indeed, almost 120 participants were able to leave Germany after Kristallnacht from Mr. Schlesinger’s program.
Fritz graduated at the end of July, 1939, and applied for a British visa in Berlin on August 7. He exited Germany on the 27th and entered the UK at Harwich on August 28th. There were instructions that upon completion of his training he will emigrate from the UK.
Just days later World War II began.
6 1/2 x 4 1/4"
Frtiz Schlesinger, Halutz, Kristallnacht, Israel
"J Stamped Passport for Frtiz Schlesinger" (1939). Bulmash Family Holocaust Collection. 2022.1.40.