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Front: Green card. One side has Hebrew text in black, other side has text in Polish. Both have serial number 1437. Back: Left side includes black and white photo of Tainara, who had dark hair and wore black. Beneath is printed text in Polish and Hebrew, and her name and location written in black ink. Two circular, purple handstamps. The right side contains a grid with Hebrew characters in each box.

Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: Hashomer Hatzair is the oldest worldwide Socialist-Zionist youth movement in existence, believing that immigration to Palestine and learning agriculture for kibbutz life was the way to save Jewish youth. Initially based in Eastern Europe, there were over 70,000 members by the time of this woman's membership. During the Holocaust, members focused on resistance against Nazis. Mordechai Anielewicz, a leader of the ZOB, the Jewish Combat Organization and martyr of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, was as well a member of Hashomer Hatzair. Other members were active in Jewish resistance in other European countries. The infamous Nazi collaborator Abraham Gancwajch had been head of Hashomer Hatzair in Lodz prior to moving to Warsaw.


4 x 6"


1437, Hashomer Hatzair Membership, Lodz, Poland, Hashomer Hatzair, Socialist-Zionist, Zionism, Socialism, youth, Palestine, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, Hashomer Hatzair Warsaw, Mordechai Aielewicz, Amaraut Tainara, Abraham Gancwajch


1939-1941: Concentration:Ghettos, Einsatzgruppen (Mobile Killing Squads); WWII in Europe

Hashomer Hatzair Membership from Lodz, Poland