Title

Dioxin Exposure Alters Molecular and Morphological Responses to Thyroid Hormone in Xenopus laevis Cultured Cells and Prometamorphic Tadpoles

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

January 2018

Abstract

Amphibian metamorphosis is driven by thyroid hormone (TH). We used prometamorphic tadpoles and a cell line of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) to examine immediate effects of dioxin exposure on TH. Gene expression patterns suggest cross-talk between the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signaling pathways. In XLK-WG cells, expression of Cytochrome P450 1A6(cyp1A6), an AHR target, was induced 1000-fold by 100 nM TCDD (2, 3, 7, 8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin). Krüppel-Like Factor 9 (klf9), the first gene induced in a cascade of TH responses tied to metamorphosis, was upregulated over 5-fold by 50 nM triiodothyronine (T3) and 2-fold by dioxin. Co-exposure to T3 and TCDD boosted both responses, further inducing cyp1A6 by 75% and klf9 about 60%. Additional canonical targets of each receptor, including trβa and trβb (TR) and udpgt1a (AHR) responded similarly. Induction of TH targets by TCDD in XLK-WG cells predicts that exposure could speed metamorphosis. We tested this hypothesis in two remodeling events: tail resorption and hind limb growth. Resorption of ex vivo cultured tails was accelerated by 10 nM T3, while a modest increase in resorption by 100 nM TCDD lacked statistical significance. Hind limbs doubled in length over four days following 1 nM T3 treatment, but limb length was unaffected by 100 nM TCDD. TCDD co-exposure reduced the T3 effect by nearly 40%, despite TCDD induction of klf9 in whole tadpoles, alone or with T3. These results suggest that tissue-specific TCDD effects limit or reverse the increased metamorphosis rate predicted by klf9 induction.

Journal

Toxicological Sciences

Volume

161

Issue

1

First Page

196

Last Page

206

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