pH Dependence and Gene Structure of inaA in Escherichia coli
The weak-acid-inducible locus inaA in Escherichia coli was mapped to 48.6 min by P1 cotransduction of inaA Mud lac fusions and linked TnlO insertions. The inaAI4::Iac fusion tested negative for phenotypes characteristic of mutations in the nearby locus ubiG. Sequence analysis of a fragment amplified by polymerase chain reaction located the inaAl::lac fusion joint within an open reading frame 311 nucleotides downstream of nrdB, transcribed in the opposite direction, encoding a 168-amino-acid polypeptide. Constitutive mutant strains identified on lactose MacConkey revealed a novel regulatory locus unlinked to inaA, which mapped at 34 min (designated inaR). Expression of inaAl::lac increased slightly with external acidification; the presence of benzoate, a membrane-permeant weak acid, greatly increased the acid effect. The expression at various combinations of benzoate and external pH correlated with the decrease in intracellular pH. The uncouplers salicylate and dinitrophenol also caused acid-dependent induction of inaA, but substantial induction was seen at external pH values higher than the internal pH; this effect cannot be caused by internal acidification. Nondissociating analogs of benzoate and salicylate, benzyl alcohol and salicyl alcohol, did not induce inaA. Expression of inaA was inversely related to growth temperature over the range of 30 to 45°C. The inaAI4::lac fusion was transferred to a strain defective for K+ uptake (kdpABC trkA trkD) in which pH homeostasis was shown to depend on the external K+ concentration. In this construct, inaAI::kac retained pH-dependent induction by benzoate but was not induced at low K+ concentrations. Induction of inaA appears to involve several factors in addition to internal pH. inaR may be related to the nearby locus marAlsoxQ, which is inducible by acidic benzyl derivatives.
Journal of Bacteriology