Authors

Object ID

2016.1.15

Object Name

Passport

Date

1939

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Description

Cover: 'DEUTSCHES REICH, REISEPASS', 32 pages total, no markings on pages 10-32, photograph adhered to top left of page 2, St. Louis stamp on page 7.

Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash:Passport issued to Margarete Philippi, whose husband Ernst had been interned at Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp. Together with their two sons Hans-Wolfgang and Gert-Egon, the Philippi family arrived in the Netherlands, were able to survive the Holocaust and eventually emigrated to America

On May 13, 1939, the SS St. Louis set sail from Hamburg, Germany, for Havana, Cuba, with 937 Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany seeking asylum after Kristallnacht. The St. Louis was under the command of Captain Gustav Schroeder. The Cuban government, however, refused entry to passengers despite all efforts at negotiation, including Captain Schroeder's compelling attempts to persuade the Cuban government to allow the passengers to debark. The United States as well refused to let the ship dock due to its immigration policies at the time. After 12 days of waiting in Havana and off the Miami coast, where Schroeder steered the ship after the Havana dabacle, the St. Louis was forced to return to Europe. A month later Belgium agreed to take 200 passengers, and the British, French, and Dutch governments agreed to temporary asylum for some of the passengers. The St. Louis docked at Antwerp and passengers were dispersed to their respective destinations. However, as the Nazis overran the European countries, more than 250 of the passengers of the St. Louis were caught in the Nazi dragnet and perished.

Captain Schroeder, the non-Jewish German commander of the St. Louis, ensured that his passengers were treated with dignity. For his stalwart efforts to help his passengers secure a safe haven, and his unwillingness to return the St. Louis to Germany, he was posthumously named Righteous Among the Nations by Yad Vashem in Israel.

Dimensions

6 1/2 x 4 1/4"

Keywords

Passport, Margarete Philippi, Ernst Philippi, SS St. Louis, Voyage of the Damned

Passport for Margarete Philippi, a Passenger on the <i> St. Louis</i>,

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